PHP Exception Handling

//Disable error reporting

//Report runtime errors
error_reporting(E_ERROR | E_WARNING | E_PARSE);

//Report all errors

1. Example Parse Error

2. Example Notice
       echo $x;
      echo Hello;
      echo $x;

Example Warning

        include 'test.php';//File test.php not exist
       echo $x;

// Use of  error_get_last() returns array type
error_reporting(0);       //To stop reporting all error
echo mysql_connect();

//Custom Error Handler

Tip: The standard PHP error handler is completely bypassed if this function is used, and the user-defined error handler must terminate the script (die() ) if necessary

Note: If errors occur before the script is executed the custom error handler cannot be used since it is not registered at that time

//error handler function
                              //required, req, optional, optional
function customError($errno, $errstr, $errfile, $errline)
 echo "<b>Custom error:</b> [$errno] $errstr<br />";
 echo " Error on line $errline in $errfile<br />";
 echo "Ending Script";

//set error handler


//trigger error
if ($test>1)
 trigger_error("A custom error has been triggered");//inbuil  function
Custom error: [1024] A custom error has been triggered
Error on line 19 in C:\webfolder\test.php
Ending Script

Even if you wear an S on your chest when it comes to programming, errors will undoubtedly creep into all but the most trivial of applications. Some of these errors are programmer-induced, the result of mistakes made during the development process. Others are user-induced, caused by the end user’s unwillingness or inability to conform to application constraints. For example, the user might enter 12341234 when asked for an e-mail address, obviously ignoring the intent of the request. Yet regardless of the error’s source, your application must be able to react to such unexpected errors in a graceful fashion, hopefully doing so without losing data or crashing the application. In addition, your application should be able to provide users with the feedback necessary to understand the reason for such errors
and potentially adjust their behavior accordingly.

This chapter introduces several features PHP has to offer for handling errors. Specifically, the following topics are covered:

Configuration directives: PHP’s error-related configuration directives determine
the language’s error-handling behavior. Many of these directives are introduced in
this chapter.

Error logging: Keeping a running log is the best way to record progress regarding
the correction of repeated errors and to quickly identify newly introduced
problems. In this chapter, you learn how to log messages to both your operating
system’s logging daemon and a custom log file.

Exception handling: Prevalent among many popular languages (Java, C#, and
Python, to name a few), exception handling was added to PHP with the version 5
release, and further enhanced within version 5.3. Exception handling offers a
standardized process for detecting, responding to, and reporting errors.
Historically, the development community has been notoriously lax in implementing proper application error handling. However, as applications continue to grow increasingly complex and unwieldy, the importance of incorporating proper error-handling strategies into your daily development routine cannot be overstated. Therefore, you should invest some time becoming familiar with the many
features PHP has to offer in this regard.

Configuration Directives
Numerous configuration directives determine PHP’s error-reporting behavior. Many of these directives are introduced in this section.
Setting the Desired Error Sensitivity Level
The error_reporting directive determines the reporting sensitivity level. Sixteen separate levels are available, and any combination of these levels is valid.
See Table 8-1 for a complete list of these levels.
Note that each level is inclusive of all levels below it. For example, the E_ALL level reports any messages from the 15 levels below it in the table.
Table 8-1. PHP’s Error-Reporting Levels
Error Level Description
E_ALL All errors and warnings
E_COMPILE_ERROR Fatal compile-time errors
E_COMPILE_WARNING Compile-time warnings
E_CORE_ERROR Fatal errors that occur during PHP’s initial start
E_CORE_WARNING Warnings that occur during PHP’s initial start
E_DEPRECATED Warnings regarding use of features scheduled for
removal in a future PHP release (introduced in PHP5.3)
E_ERROR Fatal run-time errors
E_NOTICE Run-time notices
E_PARSE Compile-time parse errors
E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR Near-fatal errors (introduced in PHP 5.2)
E_STRICT PHP version portability suggestions
(introduced in PHP 5.0)
E_USER_DEPRECATED Warnings regarding user-initiated use of features
scheduled for removal in future PHP release
(introduced in PHP 5.3)
E_USER_ERROR User-generated errors
E_USER_NOTICE User-generated notices
E_USER_WARNING User-generated warnings
E_WARNING Run-time warnings

Introduced in PHP 5, E_STRICT suggests code changes based on the core developers’ determinations
as to proper coding methodologies and is intended to ensure portability across PHP versions. If you use deprecated functions or syntax, use references incorrectly, use var rather than a scope level for class fields, or introduce other stylistic discrepancies, E_STRICT calls it to your attention.
■ Note The error_reporting directive uses the tilde character (~) to represent the logical operator NOT. During the development stage, you’ll likely want all errors to be reported. Therefore, consider setting the directive like this:
error_reporting = E_ALL & E_STRICT
I’ve included E_STRICT alongside E_ALL because in PHP versions prior to the forthcoming version 6,
E_ALL does not include E_STRICT-related errors.
However, suppose that you were only concerned about fatal run-time, parse, and core errors. You
could use logical operators to set the directive as follows:
error_reporting = E_ERROR | E_PARSE | E_CORE_ERROR
As a final example, suppose you want all errors reported except for those of level E_USER_WARNING:
error_reporting = E_ALL & ~E_USER_WARNING
Ultimately, the goal is to stay well-informed about your application’s ongoing issues without
becoming so inundated with information that you quit looking at the logs. Spend some time
experimenting with the various levels during the development process, at least until you’re well aware of
the various types of reporting data that each configuration provides.
Displaying Errors to the Browser
Enabling the display_errors directive results in the display of any errors meeting the criteria defined by
error_reporting. You should have this directive enabled only during testing and keep it disabled when
the site is live. The display of such messages is not only likely to further confuse the end user but could
also provide more information about your application/server than you might like to make available. For
example, suppose you are using a flat file to store newsletter subscriber e-mail addresses. Due to a
permissions misconfiguration, the application could not write to the file. Yet rather than catch the error
and offer a user-friendly response, you instead opt to allow PHP to report the matter to the end user. The
displayed error would look something like this:
Warning: fopen(subscribers.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in
/home/www/htdocs/ 8/displayerrors.php on line 3
Granted, you’ve already broken a cardinal rule by placing a sensitive file within the document root
tree, but now you’ve greatly exacerbated the problem by informing the user of the exact location and
name of the file. The user can then simply enter a URL similar to and proceed to do what he will with your soon-to-be furious
subscriber base.
■ Tip In PHP 5.2 a new function named error_get_last() was introduced. This function returns an associative
array consisting of the type, message, file, and line of the last occurring error.
Displaying Startup Errors
Enabling the display_startup_errors directive will display any errors encountered during the
initialization of the PHP engine. Like display_errors, you should have this directive enabled during
testing and disabled when the site is live.
Logging Errors
Errors should be logged in every instance because such records provide the most valuable means for
determining problems specific to your application and the PHP engine. Therefore, you should leave
log_errors enabled at all times. Exactly to where these log statements are recorded depends on the
error_log directive setting.
Identifying the Log File
Errors can be sent to the system logging daemon or can be sent to a file specified by the administrator
via the error_log directive. If this directive is set to the logging daemon, error statements will be sent to
the syslog on Linux or to the event log on Windows.
If you’re unfamiliar with the syslog, it’s a Linux-based logging facility that offers an API for logging
messages pertinent to system and application execution. The Windows event log is essentially the
equivalent of the Linux syslog. These logs are commonly viewed using the Event Viewer.
Setting the Maximum Log Line Length
The log_errors_max_len directive sets the maximum length, in bytes, of each logged item. The default is
1,024 bytes. Setting this directive to 0 means that no maximum length is imposed.
Ignoring Repeated Errors
Enabling ignore_repeated_errors causes PHP to disregard repeated error messages that occur within
the same file and on the same line.

Ignoring Errors Originating from the Same Location
Enabling ignore_repeated_source causes PHP to disregard repeated error messages emanating from
different files or different lines within the same file.
Storing Most Recent Error in a Variable
Enabling track_errors causes PHP to store the most recent error message in the variable $php_errormsg.
Once registered, you can do as you please with the variable data, including output it, save it to a
database, or do any other task suiting a variable.
Error Logging
If you’ve decided to log your errors to a separate text file, the Web server process owner must have
adequate permissions to write to this file. In addition, be sure to place this file outside of the document
root to lessen the likelihood that an attacker could happen across it and potentially uncover some
information that is useful for surreptitiously entering your server.
You have the option of setting the error_log directive to the operating system’s logging facility
(syslog on Linux, Event Viewer on Windows), which will result in PHP’s error messages being written to
the operating system’s logging facility or to a text file. When you write to the syslog, the error messages
look like this:
Dec 5 10:56:37 httpd: PHP Warning:
fopen(/home/www/htdocs/subscribers.txt): failed to open stream: Permission
denied in /home/www/htdocs/book/8/displayerrors.php on line 3
When you write to a separate text file, the error messages look like this:
[05-Dec-2005 10:53:47] PHP Warning:
fopen(/home/www/htdocs/subscribers.txt): failed to open stream: Permission
denied in /home/www/htdocs/book/8/displayerrors.php on line 3
As to which one to use, that is a decision that you should make on a per-environment basis. If your
Web site is running on a shared server, using a separate text file or database table is probably your only
solution. If you control the server, using the syslog may be ideal because you’d be able to take advantage
of a syslog-parsing utility to review and analyze the logs. Take care to examine both routes and choose
the strategy that best fits the configuration of your server environment.
PHP enables you to send custom messages as well as general error output to the system syslog. Four
functions facilitate this feature. These functions are introduced in the next section, followed by a
concluding example.

Initializing PHP’s Logging Facility
The define_syslog_variables() function initializes the constants necessary for using the openlog(),
closelog(), and syslog() functions. Its prototype follows:
void define_syslog_variables(void)
If you’re running PHP version 5.2.X or older, you need to execute this function before using any of
the following logging functions. Otherwise, this function was deprecated in PHP 5.3 and scheduled for
removal in PHP 6, as PHP’s logging facilities will automatically be initialized when the openlog() or
syslog() functions are called.
Opening the Logging Connection
The openlog() function opens a connection to the platform’s system logger and sets the stage for the
insertion of one or more messages into the system log by designating several parameters that will be
used within the log context. Its prototype follows:
int openlog(string ident, int option, int facility)
Several parameters are supported, including the following:
ident: Identifies messages. It is added to the beginning of each entry. Typically this
value is set to the name of the program. Therefore, you might want to identify PHPrelated
messages such as “PHP” or “PHP5.”
option: Determines which logging options are used when generating the message.
A list of available options is offered in Table 8-2. If more than one option is
required, separate each option with a vertical bar. For example, you could specify
three of the options like so: LOG_ODELAY | LOG_PERROR | LOG_PID.
facility: Helps determine what category of program is logging the message. There
are several categories, including LOG_KERN, LOG_USER, LOG_MAIL, LOG_DAEMON,
LOG_AUTH, LOG_LPR, and LOG_LOCALN, where N is a value ranging between 0 and 7.
Note that the designated facility determines the message destination. For example,
designating LOG_CRON results in the submission of subsequent messages to the cron
log, whereas designating LOG_USER results in the transmission of messages to the
messages file. Unless PHP is being used as a command-line interpreter, you’ll likely
want to set this to LOG_USER. It’s common to use LOG_CRON when executing PHP
scripts from a crontab. See the syslog documentation for more information about
this matter.
Table 8-2. Logging Options
Option Description
LOG_CONS If an error occurs when writing to the syslog, send output to the system console.
LOG_NDELAY Immediately open the connection to the syslog.

Option Description
LOG_ODELAY Do not open the connection until the first message has been submitted for logging. This is
the default.
LOG_PERROR Output the logged message to both the syslog and standard error.
LOG_PID Accompany each message with the process ID (PID).
Calling the openlog() function is optional, necessary only if you want to prefix your log messages
with a predefined string. Otherwise, you can call the syslog() function directly.
Closing the Logging Connection
The optional closelog() function closes the connection opened by openlog(). Its prototype follows:
int closelog(void)
Sending a Message to the Logging Destination
The syslog() function is responsible for sending a custom message to the system log. Its prototype
int syslog(int priority, string message)
The first parameter, priority, specifies the logging priority level, presented in order of severity here:
LOG_EMERG: A serious system problem, likely signaling a crash.
LOG_ALERT: A condition that must be immediately resolved to avert jeopardizing
system integrity.
LOG_CRIT: A critical error that could render a service unusable but does not
necessarily place the system in danger.
LOG_ERR: A general error.
LOG_WARNING: A general warning.
LOG_NOTICE: A normal but notable condition.
LOG_INFO: A general informational message.
LOG_DEBUG: Information that is typically only relevant when debugging an
The second parameter, message, specifies the text of the message that you’d like to log. If you’d like
to log the error message as provided by the PHP engine, you can include the string %m in the message.
This string will be replaced by the error message string (strerror) as offered by the engine at execution
Now that you’ve been acquainted with the relevant functions, here’s an example:

openlog("CHP8", LOG_PID, LOG_USER);
syslog(LOG_WARNING,"Chapter 8 example warning.");
This snippet would produce a log entry in the messages syslog file similar to the following:
Dec 5 20:09:29 CHP8[30326]: Chapter 8 example warning.
Exception Handling
Languages such as Java, C#, and Python have long been heralded for their efficient error-management
abilities, accomplished through the use of exception handling. As of version 5, PHP was added to the list
of languages supporting this great feature. In this section, you’ll learn all about exception handling,
including the basic concepts, syntax, and best practices. Because exception handling is new to PHP, you
may not have any prior experience incorporating this feature into your scripts. Therefore, a general
overview is presented regarding the matter. If you’re already familiar with the basic concepts, feel free to
skip ahead to the PHP-specific material later in this section.
Why Exception Handling Is Handy
In a perfect world, your program would run like a well-oiled machine, devoid of both internal and userinitiated
errors that disrupt the flow of execution. However, programming, like the real world, often
involves unforeseen happenings that disrupt the flow of events. In programmer’s lingo, these
unexpected happenings are known as exceptions. Some programming languages have the capability to
react gracefully to an exception, a behavior known as exception handling. When an error is detected, the
code issues, or throws, an exception. In turn, the error-handling code takes ownership of the exception,
or catches it. The advantages to such a strategy are many.
For starters, exception handling brings order to the error identification and management process
through the use of a generalized strategy for not only identifying and reporting application errors, but
also specifying what the program should do once an error is encountered. Furthermore, exceptionhandling
syntax promotes the separation of error handlers from the general application logic, resulting
in considerably more organized, readable code. Most languages that implement exception handling
abstract the process into four steps:
1. The application attempts to perform some task.
2. If the attempt fails, the exception-handling feature throws an exception.
3. The assigned handler catches the exception and performs any necessary tasks.
4. The exception-handling feature cleans up any resources consumed during the
Almost all languages have borrowed from the C++ syntax, known as try/catch. Here’s a simple
pseudocode example:

try {
perform some task
if something goes wrong
throw exception("Something bad happened")
// Catch the thrown exception
} catch(exception) {
output the exception message
You can also create multiple handler blocks, which allows you to account for a variety of errors. You
can accomplish this either by using various predefined handlers or by extending one of the predefined
handlers, essentially creating your own custom handler. PHP currently only offers a single handler,
exception. However, that handler can be extended if necessary. It’s likely that additional default handlers
will be made available in future releases. For the purposes of illustration, let’s build on the previous
pseudocode example, using contrived handler classes to manage I/O and division-related errors:
try {
perform some task
if something goes wrong
throw IOexception("Could not open file.")
if something else goes wrong
throw Numberexception("Division by zero not allowed.")
// Catch IOexception
} catch(IOexception) {
output the IOexception message
// Catch Numberexception
} catch(Numberexception) {
output the Numberexception message
If you’re new to exceptions, this standardized approach probably seems like a breath of fresh air.
The next section applies these concepts to PHP by introducing and demonstrating the variety of new
exception-handling procedures made available in version 5.
PHP’s Exception-Handling Implementation
This section introduces PHP’s exception-handling feature. Specifically, I touch upon the base exception
class internals and demonstrate how to extend this base class, define multiple catch blocks, and
introduce other advanced handling tasks. Let’s begin with the basics: the base exception class.
Extending the Base Exception Class
PHP’s base exception class is actually quite simple in nature, offering a default constructor consisting of no parameters, an overloaded constructor consisting of two optional parameters, and six methods. Each of these parameters and methods is introduced in this section.

The Default Constructor
The default exception constructor is called with no parameters. For example, you can invoke the exception class like so:
throw new Exception();
Once the exception has been instantiated, you can use any of the six methods introduced later in this section. However, only four will be of any use; the other two are helpful only if you instantiate the class with the overloaded constructor.
The Overloaded Constructor
The overloaded constructor offers additional functionality not available to the default constructor through the acceptance of three optional parameters:
message: Intended to be a user-friendly explanation that presumably will be passed
to the user via the getMessage() method.
error code: Intended to hold an error identifier that presumably will be mapped to some identifier-to-message table. Error codes are often used for reasons of internationalization and localization. This error code is made available via the getCode() method. Later, you’ll learn how the base exception class can be extended to compute identifier-to-message table lookups.
previous: Introduced in PHP 5.3.0, this optional parameter can be used to pass in the exception which caused the current exception to be thrown, a feature known as exception chaining (also known as exception nesting). This useful option makes it possible to easily create stack traces which you can use to diagnose a complex problem occurring in your code.
You can call this constructor in a variety of ways, each of which is demonstrated here:
throw new Exception("Something bad just happened");
throw new Exception("Something bad just happened", 4);
throw new Exception("Something bad just happened, 4, $e);
Of course, nothing actually happens to the exception until it’s caught, as demonstrated later in this
Seven methods are available to the exception class:
getCode(): Returns the error code if it is passed to the constructor.
getFile(): Returns the name of the file throwing the exception.
getLine(): Returns the line number for which the exception is thrown.
getMessage(): Returns the message if it is passed to the constructor.

getPrevious(): Added in PHP 5.3.0, this method will return the previous exception,
presuming it was passed via the exception constructor.
getTrace(): Returns an array consisting of information pertinent to the context in
which the error occurred. Specifically, this array includes the file name, line,
function, and function parameters.
getTraceAsString(): Returns all of the same information as is made available by
getTrace(), except that this information is returned as a string rather than as an
■ Caution Although you can extend the exception base class, you cannot override any of the preceding methods
because they are all declared as final. See Chapter 6 more for information about the final scope.
Listing 8-1 offers a simple example that embodies the use of the overloaded base class constructor
and several of the methods.
Listing 8-1. Raising an Exception
try {
$fh = fopen("contacts.txt", "r");
if (! $fh) {
throw new Exception("Could not open the file!");
catch (Exception $e) {
echo "Error (File: ".$e->getFile().", line ".
$e->getLine()."): ".$e->getMessage();
If the exception is raised, something like the following would be output:
Error (File: /usr/local/apache2/htdocs/8/read.php, line 6): Could not open the file!
Extending the Exception Class
Although PHP’s base exception class offers some nifty features, in some situations you’ll likely want to
extend the class to allow for additional capabilities. For example, suppose you want to internationalize
your application to allow for the translation of error messages. These messages reside in an array located
in a separate text file. The extended exception class will read from this flat file, mapping the error code
passed into the constructor to the appropriate message (which presumably has been localized to the
appropriate language). A sample flat file follows:

1,Could not connect to the database!
2,Incorrect password. Please try again.
3,Username not found.
4,You do not possess adequate privileges to execute this command.
When MyException is instantiated with a language and an error code, it will read in the appropriate
language file, parsing each line into an associative array consisting of the error code and its
corresponding message. The MyException class and a usage example are found in Listing 8-2.
Listing 8-2. The MyException Class in Action
class MyException extends Exception {
function __construct($language,$errorcode) {
$this->language = $language;
$this->errorcode = $errorcode;
function getMessageMap() {
$errors = file("errors/".$this->language.".txt");
foreach($errors as $error) {
list($key,$value) = explode(",",$error,2);
$errorArray[$key] = $value;
return $errorArray[$this->errorcode];
try {
throw new MyException("english",4);
catch (MyException $e) {
echo $e->getMessageMap();
Catching Multiple Exceptions
Good programmers must always ensure that all possible scenarios are taken into account. Consider a
scenario in which your site offers an HTML form that allows the user to subscribe to a newsletter by
submitting his or her e-mail address. Several outcomes are possible. For example, the user could do one
of the following:
• Provide a valid e-mail address
• Provide an invalid e-mail address
• Neglect to enter any e-mail address at all
• Attempt to mount an attack such as a SQL injection

Proper exception handling will account for all such scenarios. However, you need to provide a
means for catching each exception. Thankfully, this is easily possible with PHP. Listing 8-3 shows the
code that satisfies this requirement.
Listing 8-3. Catching Multiple Exceptions
/* The InvalidEmailException class notifies the site
administrator if that an e-mail is deemed invalid. */
class InvalidEmailException extends Exception {
function __construct($message, $email) {
$this->message = $message;
private function notifyAdmin($email) {
mail("","INVALID EMAIL",$email,"");
/* The Subscribe class validates an e-mail address
and adds the e-mail address to the database. */
class Subscribe {
function validateEmail($email) {
try {
if ($email == "") {
throw new Exception("You must enter an e-mail address!");
} else {
list($user,$domain) = explode("@", $email);
if (! checkdnsrr($domain, "MX"))
throw new InvalidEmailException(
"Invalid e-mail address!", $email);
return 1;
} catch (Exception $e) {
echo $e->getMessage();
} catch (InvalidEmailException $e) {
echo $e->getMessage();

/* Add the e-mail address to the database */
function subscribeUser() {
echo $this->email." added to the database!";
// Assume that the e-mail address came from a subscription form
$_POST['email'] = "";
/* Attempt to validate and add address to database. */
if (isset($_POST['email'])) {
$subscribe = new Subscribe();
You can see that it’s possible for two different exceptions to fire, one derived from the base class and
one extended from the InvalidEmailException class.
SPL’s Exceptions
Introduced in Chapter 7, the Standard PHP Library (SPL) extends PHP by offering ready-made solutions
to commonplace tasks such as file access, iteration of various sorts, and the implementation of data
structures not natively supported by PHP such as stacks, queues, and heaps. Recognizing the
importance of exceptions, the SPL also offers access to 13 predefined exceptions. These extensions can
be classified as either being logic- or runtime-related, with X of the exception classes extending
LogicException and X extending RuntimeException, respectively. All of these classes ultimately extend
the native Exception class, meaning you’ll have access to methods such as getMessage() and getLine().
Definitions of each exception follow:
• BadFunctionCallException: The BadFunctionCallException class should be used to
handle scenarios where an undefined method is called, or if an incorrect number
of arguments are called in conjunction with a method.
• BadMethodCallException: The BadMethodCallException class should be used to
handle scenarios where an undefined method is called, or if an incorrect number
of arguments are called in conjunction with a method.

• DomainException: The DomainException class should be used to handle scenarios
where an input value falls outside of a range. For instance, if a weight-loss
application includes a method which is intended to save a user’s current weight to
a database, and the supplied value is less than zero, an exception of type
DomainException should be thrown.
• InvalidArgumentException: The InvalidArgumentException class should be used to
handle situations where an argument of an incompatible type is passed to a
function or method.
• LengthException: The LengthException class should be used to handle situations
where a string’s length is invalid. For instance, if an application included a method
that processed a user’s social security number, and a string was passed into the
method that was not exactly nine characters in length, then an exception of type
LengthException should be thrown.
• LogicException: The LogicException class is one of the two base classes from
which all other SPL exceptions extend (the other base class being
RuntimeException class). You should use the LogicException class to handle
situations where an application is programmed incorrectly, such as when there is
an attempt to invoke a method before a class attribute has been set.
• OutOfBoundsException: The OutOfBoundsException class should be used to handle
situations where a provided value does not match any of an array’s defined keys.
• OutOfRangeException: The OutOfRangeException class should be used to handle a
function’s output values which fall outside of a predefined range. This differs from
DomainException in that DomainException should focus on input rather than
• OverflowException: The OverflowException class should be used to handle
situations where an arithmetic or buffer overflow occurs. For instance, you would
trigger an overflow exception when attempting to add a value to an array of a
predefined size.
• RangeException: Defined in the documentation as the runtime version of the
DomainException class, the RangeException class should be used to handle
arithmetic errors unrelated to overflow and underflow.
• RuntimeException: The RuntimeException class is one of the two base classes from
which all other SPL exceptions extend (the other base class being LogicException
class) and is intended to handle errors which only occur at runtime.
• UnderflowException: The UnderflowException class should be used to handle
situations where an arithmetic or buffer underflow occurs. For instance, you
would trigger an underflow exception when attempting to remove a value from an
empty array.
• UnexpectedValueException: The UnexpectedValueException class should be used to
handle situations where a provided value does not match any of a predefined set
of values.

Keep in mind that these exception classes do not currently offer any special features pertinent to the
situations they are intended to handle; rather, they are provided with the goal of helping you to improve
the readability of your code by using aptly-named exception handlers rather than simply using the
general Exception class.
The topics covered in this chapter touch upon many of the core error-handling practices used in today’s
programming industry. While the implementation of such features unfortunately remains more
preference than policy, the introduction of capabilities such as logging and error handling has
contributed substantially to the ability of programmers to detect and respond to otherwise unforeseen
problems in their code.
The next chapter takes an in-depth look at PHP’s string-parsing capabilities, covering the language’s
powerful regular expression features, and offering insight into many of the powerful string-manipulation