Field Manual for Hackers

hacking | Explain at least five Network Topologies.

1. Bus topology-In networking a bus is the central cable -- the main wire -- that connects all devices on a local-area network (LAN).
Ring topology-A local-area network (LAN) whose topology is a ring means all of the nodes are connected in a closed loop. Messages travel around the ring, with each node reading those messages addressed to it.
Star topology- In a star network devices are connected to a central computer, called a hub. Nodes communicate across the network by passing data through the hub.
Tree topology-This is a "hybrid" topology that combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. In a tree network, groups of star-configured networks are connected to a linear bus backbone cable.
Mesh topology- In a mesh network, devices are connected with many redundant interconnections between network nodes. In a true mesh topology every node has a connection to every other node in the network.

2. TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
#Point to point Topology:- When two devices are directly connected to each other to form a network and there is only a single path to transfer the data between the those two devices is known as point to point topology.
#Bus topology :- When multiple devices are connected to a single cable to transfer the data with each other then it is known as bus topology.
#Star Topology :- When multiple devices are connected with a single device to transfer the data with each other then it is known as star topology.
#Ring Topology :- When each device in a network is connected to another device to form a closed loop path then it is known as ring topology.
#Mesh Topology :- When each device in a network is connected with each and every device then it is known as mesh topology.

3. Bus topology – in this arrangement computers and devices are connected to a single linear cable called a trunk. The trunk is also referred to as the backbone or a segment.
Star topology – all computers and devices are connected to a main hub or switch. The hub or switch amasses and disburses the flow of data within the network. Star topology is the most common type of network and follows the Ethernet standard.
Ring topology – computers and devices are connected to a closed loop cable. Here there are no terminating ends so if one system crashes the entire network goes down.
MESH Topology - It is a point-to-point connection to other nodes or devices. All the network nodes are connected to each other.
TREE Topology - It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. It is also called hierarchical topology. It should at least have three levels to the hierarchy.

4. The various topologies are-
a) Mesh Topology :
In mesh topology, every device is connected to another device via particular channel.
b) In star topology, all the devices are connected to a single hub through a cable. This hub is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the central node.
c) Bus Topology :
Bus topology is a network type in which every computer and network device is connected to single cable. It transmits the data from one end to another in single direction. No bi-directional feature is in bus topology.
d) Ring Topology :
In this topology, it forms a ring connecting a devices with its exactly two neighbouring devices.
e) Hybrid Topology :
This topology is a collection of two or more topologies which are described above. This is a scalable topology which can be expanded easily. It is reliable one but at the same it is a costly topology.
f) Tree Topology :
It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. It is also called hierarchical topology. It should at least have three levels to the hierarchy.

5. Mesh Topology. Mesh Topology: In a mesh network, devices are connected with many redundant interconnections between network nodes.

6. Star
In star topology, each computer is connected to a central hub using a point-to-point connection. The central hub can be a computer server that manages the network, or it can be a much simpler device that only makes the connections between computers over the network possible.

7. Bus
Bus topology uses one main cable to which all nodes are directly connected. The main cable acts as a backbone for the network. One of the computers in the network typically acts as the computer server. The first advantage of bus topology is that it is easy to connect a computer or peripheral device. The second advantage is that the cable requirements are relatively small, resulting in lower cost.
One of the disadvantages is that if the main cable breaks, the entire network goes down. This type of network is also difficult to troubleshoot. For these reasons, this type of topology is not used for large networks, such as those covering an entire building.

8. Ring
In ring topology, the computers in the network are connected in a circular fashion, and the data travels in one direction. Each computer is directly connected to the next computer, forming a single pathway for signals through the network. This type of network is easy to install and manage.

9. FIVE TYPE OF NETWORK TOPOLOGIES

1). MESH TOPOLOGIES : Mesh network device are connect with many redundant interconnection between network node
IT TWO TYPE : FULL OR PARTIAL
FULL; very expensive and greatest amount network traffic direct to any other nodes.
PARTIAL: less connection only connected one and two network

2). STAR TOPOLOGIES: Star network device are connected to a central computer called a hub nodes